Space Begins

10 million trillion trillion trillionths of a second after the beginning a bit of space-time about 100 million trillion times smaller than a proton came into existence. There was no distinction between the four fundamental forces of nature.

Gravity was the first to split away and a few trillion trillionth of a second later the strong nuclear force broke away from the others, releasing, in the process, a vast amount of energy that caused the Universe to expand by a factor of 100 billion trillion trillion in a few more trillionth of a second.

The Normal Rate

At the end of this rapid expansion a group of elementary particles began to condense and the expansion of the universe dramatically slowed to the "normal" rate. As the Universe ended its first trillionth of a second the temperature cooled from about 100 million trillion trillion degrees to 10 billion degrees cool enough for protons, neutrons, and electrons to form.

At about the 100-second mark, with the temperature at a billion degrees, neutrons and protons were able to stick together.

About 300,000 years later the temperature had dropped to 3,000 degrees and the first atoms formed. Matter and energy became decoupled, and, for the first time, light could travel freely across space.

It is Always Sunset

Somewhere on planet earth, there is always a sunset and sunrise as our globe sits in space rotating through the shadow created by the sun. The oscillation from day to night is the most fundamental unit of time and our awareness of time maybe most a result of the fact that the earth rotates on its tilted axis as it orbits around the sun.

The Word Month is Close to the Word Moon

The word month is close to the word moon and is a unit of time derived from the cycles of the moon’s phases.

From earth, the Moon is apparently still and does not rotate. However, the moon is in a synchronous rotation with the earth; rotating one counterclockwise revolution over the same time it takes to make one counterclockwise orbit around the earth essentially keeping the same side facing us; but rotating nonetheless when observed from space.

Natural Ticking Clock

The tide is a result of the moon and the sun’s gravity pulling the oceans into bulges and the earth’s rotation moving the bulges around the planet. The regular pattern of the tides is a natural ticking clock like day and night, the seasons, the phases of the moon and menstruation. These regular events are a kind of natural time that is so obvious that it goes unnoticed.

Pi Is

The circle is everywhere in nature and the circumference of a circle is pie times its diameter. The exact value of π has an infinite decimal expansion which never ends and apparently does not repeat. Supercomputer calculations have determined over one trillion digits of π and no pattern in the digits has ever been found.

How many drops have fallen in the water, how many drops are falling in the water. How many drops will fall in the water. The answer will be 16.

Time in a Puddle

The flow of water resembles the notion that time also flows. Water flows from the mountains to the sea and rain falls from the sky just as time seems to flow from the future through the present to accumulate in the past.

Rainfall is a natural clock and somewhere something may be counting each and every raindrop that has fallen on earth since the first rain;

Fixing Time

The passage of time is probably the most basic facet of human perception. We feel time slipping by in our innermost self with an intimacy that is far more real than our experience of space or mass.

As real as this experience is nothing in known physics corresponds to the passage of time, in fact physics indicates that time does not flow at all; it simply is. Could it be that our experience of time, which seems so real is an illusion.

The Shadows has no Substance

The shadow is perhaps the most elementary indicator of time. The shadow requires no tools to make, leaves no permanent marks, is always changing, can travel at the speed of light and defines the shape of objects yet it has no substance. The shadow on a sundial allows us to see the passage of time but does time actually pass.

Where Did Time Come From

Everything in the universe is moving so what meaning can be applied to the movement of time; does it move through space or does it move relative to itself and if this is so how fast does time pass where does it go and where did it come from.

It Is always 9 O’clock

The gun fires at nine PM every day in Vancouver, Canada. If one ignores artificial time zones it is always nine pm somewhere on earth and in fact it is every time all the time somewhere on earth.

One Second

Ever since beings became aware of time they have sought to control it and the only way so far has been to measure and count it in finer and finer increments. One second is about the time it takes to say I love you.

The atomic clock has defined the second by counting the spin-flip transitions of the electrons orbiting a cesium-133 atom’s nucleolus. This divides the second into approximately 9.2 billion (9,192,631,770) parts but is still not considered precise enough.


An escapement is a toothed wheel that allows a mechanical clock to tick at regular intervals every second. But must a clock’s units be equal and regular when it comes to know how long a lifetime is. Perhaps there is a clock with an escapement tuned to the interval known as lifetime; it would tick when a person was born and tock when a person died.


The Doomsday Clock represents the human race as being at a 'few minutes to midnight' where midnight represents destruction by nuclear war.

The clock was started at seven minutes to midnight during the Cold War and has been moved forwards or backwards depending on the prospects for nuclear destruction. In 1953, when the super powers tested atomic bombs within nine months of one another, the clock showed two minutes to midnight, the closest it has ever been. In 1991 the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty and the time changed to seventeen minutes to 12, its greatest distance from midnight so far.

The Future to the Past

Why do we feel as if we are traveling from the past to the future when time, if flowing at all must be going from the future to the past.

Apparently we exist in the present so time passes by us but if we lived in the past would time be coming towards us and if lived in the future would it not seem to be moving away from us.

The Word Time

The word time is more real than time itself. We cannot see the spoken word nor can we see time yet we accept that they both exist so how can this film be about time if time cannot be seen.

Eight and One-half Minutes

The light from the sun takes about 8 and one half minutes to reach the earth. The sun we are watching set has already disappeared below the horizon; we are looking at what has already happened; the past. Light from other stars has been traveling for millions of years bringing the past into our present. The light emanating from our own experience is traveling out into space so that if one were to race past it turn round and look back one could see one’s own past playing back as the light arrived.

The Shortest Length of Time

The shortest length of time ever recorder is 100 attoseconds. One attosecond is one quintillionth of a second. To imagine how long this is if 100 attoseconds were stretched to one second then comparatively that one second would have to be stretched to 300 million years.

The Grooves of a Record

If waves were years, could we determine the age of an ocean by counting the waves that break on the shore like we can determine the age of a tree by counting its growth rings. Is it possible to take these growth rings and play them on a turntable just like the groves of a record. Perhaps we would hear the voice of the tree or the sound of the tree growing for 775 years in an undisturbed forest.

Don’t these rings remind you of the path of planets orbiting the sun of an undiscovered solar system; ripples in a pond, sound waves emanating from the single ring of a bell, electrons circling the cesium atom, or perhaps the expansion of the universe after the big bang.

Geological Photography

What is the destiny of these leafs when they fall from the tree in autumn some may sink to the bottom of a lake to be covered by sediment in an oxygen free environment and gradually have their cell structure replaced by precipitating minerals. After time, some may return to the surface as images; shadows of themselves having been recorded by a kind of geological photography. These leaves no long feel the sunlight, cast shadows or rustle in the wind but given enough time they too have a change to recombine as another tree and to enjoy time again as a living organism.

From Bubbles to Humans

It is theorized that winds sweeping across the oceans concentrated the basic inorganic chemicals required for life on the shorelines of the warm shallow waters of the prebiotic oceans. Oily bubbles containing a mixture of methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen could have formed into a kind of protocell. These bubbles may have been the precursor to the living cell. If this was so, the essential ingredient that has allowed humans to developed from bubbles has been a great deal of time.

What Is Happening

If I tell you that the water in this stream is wearing the rock into its shape you may not believe me. If I said the water has worn the rock into its present state and will continue to erode the rock away you may find that easier to accept.

Often one can see what has happened and sometimes what will happen but to see what is happening seems to be more difficult.

Water Falls

Each sequence in this film is one minute long. The real waterfall was falling before this shot came up and will continue to fall after the shot cuts but for one minute your experience watching this film is in synchronous harmony with the actual waterfall and every time this film plays this shot will be in harmony with the real waterfall it represents.

Water Does Not Fall

Space, mass, gravity and time are actually made up of tiny discreet units called Planck units. Continuous space and time is composed of individual tiny pieces, similar to the way the digital sampling of analogue signals represents the complete continuous original.

The camera is sampling the water falling over the cliff but is moving at the same speed as the falling water so the water does not seems to move relative to the observer; apparently water does not fall after all.

Temporal Alias

Temporal aliasing occurs when the view of a moving object is represented by a sampling rate that is close to the objects rotational rate. Each time the camera takes a picture of a particular fan blade it is in a new position and since one blade is indistinguishable from the next there is confusion as to which fan blade is appearing where in each successive image.

Heat Life

A temperature gradient makes heat move from a hot to a colder body and may possibly account for all activity in the universe. When there are no more temperature gradients to sustain motion or life the universe will have achieved a uniform temperature known as its heat death and time will come to an end. Time only exists because things are different temperatures.


Is the wind building up layers of sand to be buried and compressed and turned back into solid rock or is the wind breaking the sand down into finer particles and scattering it according to the laws of entropy.

Is this is a pattern of ripples in sand or a series of mountainous ridges; is it small or big, close or far, micro or macro; there is no scale to time or space without a human presence.

Thinking Baby

Does one need time or space to think. A baby thinks before he learns to speak but how. We think with language so how does a baby think without language and since one cannot use words without taking a position in time can a baby think without time.

Try to think without language, try to think without time. Try to think like a baby.


Max is seven years old in this shot, if you were to meet him after the film is over you may be momentarily surprise to realize that he does not look like he does in this film.

The image of a person is always outdated compared to the real present tense appearance of the individual. Now you know what Max does not look like.

Escalator Helen

Have you been counting the escalator steps if not then 88 is the number.

Moving Picture

There is no movement in a movie; only many individual still pictures and each one must be displayed on its own in order to keep the picture moving. We see plenty of movement but nothing is actually going anywhere. Motion allows us to see time.

Intermittent Motion

It is possible to see the runners feet come to a complete stop when their shoes contact the road becoming clear and sharp as their moving body remains a blur. The foot and leg exhibit an intermittent motion, stopping and starting in order to maintain the continuous motion of the body.

The runners are engrossed in the total experience of the run. When they finish and learn their race time this precise number will collapses their multifaceted experience into a single position between first and last. The duration of this film is 88 minutes and we are at the 32nd minute; who will be first to finish this film?

Kept Time

I am a clock. I can keep time.

Crazy Daisy

Children are largely oblivious to time. They cannot estimate duration very well, have little ability to anticipate events in the future and have almost no interest in the past. They are acutely oriented to the present.

A child, free of time, enjoys a summer afternoon playing with their best friend in a sprinkler. Much later two ladies, who are still friends, recall the crazy daisy and how they used to speed hours jumping up and down in the freezing water.

Old Friends

Have you ever heard a fifty year old say they don’t feel any different than they did when they were a kid; is that because we can only appreciate time as an external dynamic that changes things around us but not us.

When we first see a friend, after many years, the change in their appearance can be shocking as we subconsciously expect them to have remained the same because we believe that we remained the same.

Hair Cut

Hair growth is a natural clock and the ticking of that clock is the haircut. The haircut is a kind of personalized time unit by which one can measure non-precise durations. I have live in this house for about five haircuts, I wouldn’t be ready for marriage until at least 250 haircuts or did you see that couple, there is at least 300 haircuts difference in their age.

How many haircuts do you think a person has in their life?

Summer time

Where is the precision in the following units of time; white nights, midnight sun, summer job, dog days, Indian summer, summer time blues, summer holiday, summer school, deep summer, summer breeze, summer friends, endless summer, summer love, A Midsummer Nights Dream.

How does summer pass so quickly and what mechanism speeds up time for moments of joy and pleasure but slows it down for pain and sorrow.

No Time Like the Present

There comes a time when a girl is no longer a girl and this major change is beyond the individual’s control and comes with a mandatory participation rate.

We have no involvement being born, passing from child to adult or passing on as we would surely waffle, procrastinate or fail to make these changes on time so time makes them for us. When we are young we wish to be older and when we are older we wish to be young; to be now in the present is often the least desirable state; even though there is no time like the present.


Enough Time

Usually, given enough time, our attention shifts to matters unrelated to our immediate environment, our mind wanders and the brain generates spontaneous and relatively unconstrained thoughts.

The painters are likely experiencing this serene state of concentration where time seems not to exist, however some studies indicate that at the 52-second mark of this shot men will be thinking about sex.


If life possessed in itself a positive value and real content, there would be no such thing as boredom: mere existence would fulfill and satisfy us. Most work is a mind-numbing daily routine that can only be tolerated by accepting boredom as an inevitable part of life, which it is. Can we train ourselves to love boredom, to cherish every boring moment and lament how time flies when we are bored.

Cyclical Time

Every Day Life

Do you think time is the same everywhere in the universe? Is a second, minute or hour the same a billion light-years away as it is here on earth. If there are clocks on other planets what would they look like.

Maybe there are alternate time systems that measures each moment as unique and different or a system that contains some of our familiar time units blended with unknown units. Maybe these alternate systems are all around us and can be glimpsed in moments of every day life.

Sleep State

The circadian clock is a cluster of neurons behind the eyes that controls the body’s many daily rhythms. The clock functions automatically and sends us to sleep when it is time. But what happens to time and space during sleep when one enters the dream world. What is she dreaming; a mid summer night’s dream; Do her dreams require space? and what time is it for her. Is her dream of the present, in her past or from her future when she has become a beautiful woman.

Nude descending a staircase

Cubism simultaneously renders space from a multitude of viewpoints in order to represent the subject in a greater context than simple depiction. It suggests that several viewpoints of space are possible at the same time.

When applied to time, cubism assembles the past and the future into the shallow space of the present.

Forwards or Backwards

Heat of itself cannot flow from a colder to a hotter body. This is regarded, as proof that time is asymmetrical; that time flows in one direction. If time were perfectly symmetric then it would be possible to watch a movie of real events and everything that happens in the movie would seem realistic whether it was played forwards or backwards.

Swing Time

In order to reverse direction is it necessary for each child to come to a stop or can they change direction without stopping. How long do they remain stationary; could they remain stationary for only a Planck unit?

Time appears symmetrical here as the film could be run forwards or backwards without changing the logic of the action. Perhaps children on swings are traveling in time after all.

Point Blank

Continuous time and space is essential to maintain the illusion of reality in a fiction film. Films are shot out of sequence and later cut together to imply that everything took place in real time. Fragments assembled one after the other create a more realistic impression than recording an event as one continuous shot which is how we would actually experience it. The only thing that is real in a movie is the viewer.

Rain Shadow

Do Not Remember

There are plans to build a timepiece called the Clock of the Long Now. It will have a century hand and a millennium hand and will only tick every year. The clock is designed to work for at least 10,000 years but will need to be periodically wound a duty, which could be forgotten.

In order to realize that one has forgotten something one must be able to remember what one has forgotten. So one will never forget anything if one does not remember.

Involuntary Memory

Involuntary memory is a phenomenon in which sensual stimuli play a crucial role in evoking recollections. They possess a vivid sensory immediacy that seems to obliterate the passage of time between the original event and its re-experience in memory.

Where is Memory

Go back to the playground where you spent enjoyable summer holidays as a child. Everything will seem strangely smaller, more ordinary than how you remembered it to be.

The vestiges of memory and traces of experience are there but they are impossibly transiencent to confirm that memory has a location.

So where is memory.


Nostalgia is that state when one is overcome with a feeling, a yearning for a time and place located in our past experience that can be triggered by a variety of sensations. It is a powerful déjà vu, that never quite resolves but hovers somewhere between real memory and fantasy enhanced by the absence of reason. It is the pain of longing to return to ones’ past combined with the anxiety of knowing that one will never experience it again.

One Minute of silence

Time is Like the Wind

I cannot see wind but I can see the effects of wind. I cannot touch wind but I can feel it. I cannot control wind but I can measure it. Time is like the wind.

Wind flies
Wind is on my side
I love the wind I spent with you.
There is a wind for all seasons
Wind heals all wounds.

Time is an Emotion

What does time look like, does it make a sound, can one smell or taste it can it be touched as it passes by. The senses are not much use for detecting time so how do we experience it.

Time is not something we know but something we feel almost as though time were an emotion. It feels late, or it feels like a long time until summer.

Cottonwood Seeds

Being to Object

All of the wood around us at one time was a living organism. As a result of harvesting the wood has changed from a being into an object. Could it be that one’s desk, chair or table dreams of its days when it was alive and is wishing to be a tree again. Imagine if the wood that is now an object came back to life and began to grow.


For a long time now humans have been burning things and we have released a lot of heat here on earth. Will we burn up everything we can get our hands on until eventually there is nothing left.

Original Light

What happened to the light reflecting off the surface of the stream on the day this was filmed? Most of it dispersed into space, some escaping the earth’s atmosphere to continue traveling today through the universe. Other light was focused on the film forming an image that is now being used to regulate light traveling from the screen to your eyes. Could some of the light that is reaching us now from the screen actually be some of the original light that was reflecting off the water.

Know Light

Light travels at about 300 million meter per second in a vacuum and that is considered the top speed for everything in the universe. Physicists have experimented with reducing the speed of light slowing a laser pulse to just 58 meters per second meters creating what is know as slow light.

A scientist studied light all his life and knew almost everything there is to know about light but he was blind so he knew everything about light but didn’t really know light.


We usually think with language or images but in those rare moments of intense experience, the body and consciousness become one and there is no division between thoughts, feelings and actions.

We can exceed the speed of light, travel in time and defy physics in the imagination.

Time is Like a Liquid

This ship has a bow and a stern so it can easily move forwards or backwards. But does experience have to move in a direction along a line; could it go sideways, zigzag, travel in a circle, form a square, a spiral, or a sphere.

Time is like a liquid that takes the shape of its container and that container is human experience.


A number in a sequence implies a past, a present and future. But when the sequence is non-linear the number loses meaning because it contradicts our innate craving for order, narrative; for a beginning, a middle and an end that is so familiar to our own experience. Linear time may be an illusion but given a powerful imaginary influence, we may experience time as fragmented and rearranged in a meta-linear order.

Motion Picture

The cyclists have gone around the track about ten times but the boring parts were cut out, did you notice.



No Time at All

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time. It is also one of the most thrilling physical forces a person can feel. Race times get shorter and shorter so is it possible that at some theoretical point the race will take no time at all?


Speed is an intoxicating sensation.

Remove Time

The earth spins, the planets spin, so does the sun, the galaxies and everything else in space. Quantum physics discovered that elementary particles also spin and their spin is an intrinsic physical property.

The propeller is spinning and so is the shutter in the film camera but the phase difference renders the blades as soft blurs and even makes them seem to rotate backwards. The propeller would be more accurately represented if we removed time from this image with photography.

Bouncing on the Beds

Not long ago an eleven-year-old boy went for a ride in a vintage airplane. He took off with Walt, the pilot, flew around for a while did a few rolls then landed. It was a special experience but he did not know at the time that this was to become a childhood memory and that he would recall that flight in the Harvard every time he took off in a plane.

When asked to remember what was the best part of his trip to Disneyland, the most memorable moment he recalls is bouncing on the beds in the Motel 6. Should we know when we are having a significant experience that will be filed in our memory as special? Most experience is lost shortly after it happens and only select moments are held in the memory.

What To Remember

Would it be possible for a person to remember everything so that every sensory detail of every moment of one’s experience, every word spoken or heard, every thing read, every thing thought would be inscribed in the conscious memory. How are we supposed to know what to remember about the present moment and what to let go?

Presque Vu

Have you ever been acutely aware of the present perhaps flying in a plane or watching a plane land and thought that disaster could strike exactly when you are paying attention and ready for it.

Presque vu or almost seen is like Deja vu but is the sensation of being on the brink of an event that never happens.

A camera records a plane landing and just happens to be filming on the rare occasion when the plane crashes; would that be being at the right place at the right time for the cameraman and being at the wrong place at the wrong time for the passengers.

Are Here Yet

Yet there we are There yet we are We there yet are There we are yet Yet there are we We are yet there Yet we are there Are yet there we We there are yet There we yet are Yet are we there There yet are we We yet there are Are we there yet is actually a very good question.

We spend a great deal of time moving the body through space so that it can catch up with the mind that has already arrived at the destination.

Cruise Ship

Worm Holes

If a worm is traveling over the skin of an apple, then the worm could take a shortcut to the opposite side of the apple by burrowing through its center, rather than traveling the entire distance around. Wormholes could provide a short cut from one part of the universe to another without having to actually travel the real distance. Wormholes connect two points in spacetime, which means that they would in principle allow travel in time as well as space.

Passing into the Future

Some of the objects you own will still be around after you are gone. It doesn’t seem right that things can exist longer than people as we value another person much more than we value an object. Will a 1911 Cadillac still be going in another fifty, one hundred or a thousand years.

Dark Time

Just as there is dark energy and dark matter in the universe could there also be dark time. Time that exists parallel to our own but is not directly detectable. Would this time regulate the space of a simultaneous universe that includes beings like ourselves who pass through our physical laws like wind through a screen.

Four Percent Normal

Normal matter and energy accounts for only 4 percent of the universe. The density of the ordinary universe is estimated to be about one hydrogen atom per cubic meter of space.

So what makes up our physical existence is a lot of nothing. It begins to feel that the only thing that is real and the only thing we can actually know, is our own consciousness.

Ping Pong

It seems that we are made up of two parallel streams; our body, which allows us to experience pain and pleasure, and our consciousness, which is inside of our body and is made up of thoughts and feelings. Both feel equally real.

The body changes dramatically over time but our consciousness seems to remain about the same until the two are separated; the body collapses and the consciousness passes on.

The Struggle Against Gravity

Spring is fleeting and ephemeral; the blossoms seem to appear in the trees suddenly. When one takes time to notice their beauty one also sees them falling to the ground. Is life then a force that struggles against gravity; a force that gathers and organizes molecules into structures that rise up from the ground in temporary triumph only to be pulled back down. Am I a collection of molecules that manage to rise up and move around in a vertical position for a number of years only to succumb to gravity and collapse back down into the earth.

Knowledge of time

Gently Down the Stream

Our lives proceed from the general to the specific. As inevitably approach the end our existence becomes more and more specific until an exact moment defines everything. At that instant, time will rapidly accelerate quickly surpassing even the speed of light and what happens after that moment is what we believe will happen.

The Train is on Time

The train is on time; it is of an indefinite length and moving at the speed of life. I can see myself apparently on the other side but on the other side of what is not known.

I do not know if I have gotten off the train or am looking for a chance to jump on and it is moving too fast to recognize others on board or those standing by the track. There is also someone watching me whom I cannot.

When am I?